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About This Program
A-CRA also has been implemented in intensive outpatient and residential treatment settings and the adult model, Community Reinforcement Approach CRA , has been found effective with adults. A-CRA includes guidelines for three types of sessions: According to the adolescent's needs and self-assessment of happiness in multiple areas of functioning, therapists choose from among 17 A-CRA procedures that address, for example, problem-solving skills to cope with stressors, communication skills, and participation in positive social and recreational activities with the goal of improving life satisfaction and eliminating substance use problems.
Each session ends with a homework assignment that pertains to the subjects discussed during the session. For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative contact information is listed at the bottom of this page. The quality of a clinician's general counseling skills e. There is a manual that describes how to implement this program , and there is training available for this program.
Centralized training is provided for both clinicians and supervisors. It is expected that each clinician will work with a supervisor who is pursuing certification or is already certified as a supervisor in the model, followed by a certification process that requires uploading digital recordings to a secure website for expert review and feedback, and attending cross-site coaching calls.
The initial training is 20 hours. The certification process requires recording treatment sessions so this occurs during actual treatment hours ; the average coaching and feedback review time is 14 hours.
So on average, basic certification is 42 hours. After individuals have made progress in certification, additional training workshops are available for training in how to use the procedures to address other co-occurring disorders and for supervisors. There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach A-CRA as listed below:.
After an organization or individual expresses interest in learning the intervention, the EBT Coordinator will make contact and learn more about the organization or individual so that they can make recommendations regarding training.
Once an organization makes a decision to proceed with training, orientation calls may be conducted with each site to review certification requirements for clinicians and supervisors. To contact an EBT Coordinator, an organization or individual can e-mail ebtxquestions chestnut.
An EBT Coordinator is designated to work with each agency and is available by phone and email to address any questions from clinicians, supervisors, or management regarding the certification process, coaching, or the website. In addition to follow-up email communication, the EBT Coordinator makes post-training site implementation calls 4- 6 weeks after initial A-CRA training to review early implementation decisions and paperwork and answer site questions.
Implementing staff will participate in bimonthly telephone coaching calls for clinicians and supervisors who are working towards certification. The calls are led by an A-CRA expert. These coaching calls focus on addressing any questions clinicians, supervisors, or management have regarding the use of A-CRA and helping them learn how to implement the interventions with high fidelity ; the calls can also involve a special topic or sharing of ideas with other sites implementing A-CRA.
Individual coaching calls are available to trainees in need of extra assistance throughout the certification process. These reports are based on the site's progress with A-CRA.
There is an A-CRA checklist and a rating manual. The following article describes the training for A-CRA raters: The training process for A-CRA raters. Sites implement by participating in a well-defined training and certification process, which is described on the A-CRA website http: Science and Practice, 18 1 , This program is rated a " 2 - Supported by Research Evidence " on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-review ed research available.
The program must have at least one rigorous randomized controlled trial with a sustained effect of at least 6 months. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information. Main findings from two randomized trials. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27 , Randomized controlled trial Number of Participants: To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations This article presents the main outcome findings from two interrelated randomized trials conducted at 4 sites to evaluate the effectiveness of 5 short-term outpatient interventions for adolescents with cannabis use disorders.
All 5 Cannabis Youth Treatment CYT interventions demonstrated significant pre-post treatment improvements during the 12 months after random assignment to a treatment intervention in the 2 main outcomes: Overall, the clinical outcomes were very similar across sites and conditions. Limitations include its reliance on participant self-report and the lack of a no-treatment control group. Treatment outcome for street-living, homeless youth. Addictive Behaviors, 32 , Youth assigned to the A-CRA condition, compared to TAU, reported significantly reduced substance use and depression, and increased social stability.
In both conditions, youth improved in other behavioral domains including substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems, and emotion and task-oriented coping. Limitations include participants were only assessed at posttreatment, were recruited conveniently from a sample already accessing a drop-in center indicating they might be more amenable to change or respond differently to treatment efforts than youth who do not access drop-in centers, the research assistants were not blinded to the treatment condition that youth were assigned, and youth were aware of the possible treatment conditions.
Gender and racial differences in treatment process and outcome among participants in the adolescent community reinforcement approach. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25 1 , Multisite pretest-posttest design Number of Participants: To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations The study examined whether initiation, engagement, dosage, treatment satisfaction, or outcomes for adolescents who received the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach A-CRA in a large implementation effort were equivalent by gender or racial group.
Results indicated that nearly all adolescents in the sample reported being satisfied with treatment; however, male adolescents had significantly higher rates of treatment satisfaction than female adolescents, and African American adolescents had significantly higher rates of treatment satisfaction than Caucasian adolescents.
All racial groups had significant increases in days abstinent from alcohol and other drugs and in the percentage in recovery across the measurement period, but did not differ from one another at the six-month follow-up. Female adolescents had a higher percentage of days abstinent from alcohol and other drugs and were more likely to be in recovery at the six-month follow-up than male adolescents. Limitations include a limited postintervention follow-up, no control group, high dropout rate for study participants, and minimal ethnic representation among Asians and Native Americans.
Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach outcomes differ among emerging adults and adolescents. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41 4 , Retrospective matched groups design using propensity scores Number of Participants: To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations This study compares outcomes between adolescents and emerging adults with substance use disorders who received the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach A-CRA.
Propensity score matching was used to create a weighted comparison group of adolescents who had similar demographic characteristics, clinical severity, and treatment retention as the group of emerging adults ages Emerging adults and adolescents both reduced their substance use at follow-up. However, emerging adults were less likely to be abstinent and in remission and had more days of alcohol use when compared with adolescents. Longitudinal change mechanisms for substance use and illegal activity for adolescents in treatment.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28 2 , To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations The current study investigated: This study is a secondary data analysis of longitudinal data from a large-scale implementation effort for A-CRA.
Results indicate participation in A-CRA had a significant, direct association with reduced substance use; a significant, indirect association with reduced illegal activity through reductions in substance use; and a significant indirect association with reduced juvenile justice system involvement through reductions in both substance use and illegal activity.
In addition, post hoc analyses using a bootstrapping strategy provided evidence that reductions in substance use partially mediated the relationship between A-CRA and illegal activity.
Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures, and nonrandomization of subjects. A comparison of treatment outcomes for Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach participants with and without co-occurring disorders.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46, To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations This study examined the relationship between Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach A-CRA participation with treatment engagement, retention, and satisfaction, and with substance use and emotional problem outcomes.
In response many institutions established separate business units and subsidiary corporations to facilitate CRA-related lending. Local and regional public-private partnerships and multi-bank loan consortia were formed to expand and manage such CRA-related lending.
In July , President Bill Clinton asked regulators to reform the CRA in order to make examinations more consistent, clarify performance standards, and reduce cost and compliance burden. Robert Rubin , the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, under President Clinton, explained that this was in line with President Clinton's strategy to "deal with the problems of the inner city and distressed rural communities".
Discussing the reasons for the Clinton administration's proposal to strengthen the CRA and further reduce red-lining, Lloyd Bentsen , Secretary of the Treasury at that time, affirmed his belief that availability of credit should not depend on where a person lives, "The only thing that ought to matter on a loan application is whether or not you can pay it back, not where you live.
By early , the proposed CRA regulations were substantially revised to address criticisms that the regulations, and the agencies' implementation of them through the examination process to date, were too process-oriented, burdensome, and not sufficiently focused on actual results.
During one of the Congressional hearings addressing the proposed changes in , William A. Niskanen , chair of the Cato Institute , criticized both the and sets of proposals for political favoritism in allocating credit, for micromanagement by regulators and for the lack of assurances that banks would not be expected to operate at a loss to achieve CRA compliance. He predicted the proposed changes would be very costly to the economy and the banking system in general.
Niskanen believed that the primary long-term effect would be an artificial contraction of the banking system. Niskanen recommended Congress repeal the Act. In response to the aggregate concerns recorded by then, the Federal financial supervisory agencies the OCC, FRB, FDIC, and OTS made further clarifications relating to definition, assessment, ratings and scope; sufficiently resolving many of the issues raised in the process.
The agencies jointly reported their final amended regulations for implementing the Community Reinvestment Act in the Federal Register on May 4, The final amended regulations replaced the existing CRA regulations in their entirety. This law repealed the part of the Glass—Steagall Act that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investment , commercial banking , and insurance services since its enactment in A similar bill was introduced in by Senator Phil Gramm but it was unable to complete the legislative process into law.
Resistance to enacting the bill, as well as the subsequent bill, centered around the legislation's language which would expand the types of banking institutions of the time into other areas of service but would not be subject to CRA compliance in order to do so.
The Senator also demanded full disclosure of any financial "deals" which community groups had with banks, accusing such groups of "extortion". In the fall of , Senators Dodd and Schumer prevented another impasse by securing a compromise between Sen. The Act also mandated two studies to be conducted in connection with the " Community Reinvestment Act ": On signing the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, President Clinton said that it, "establishes the principles that, as we expand the powers of banks, we will expand the reach of the [Community Reinvestment] Act".
In there was an inter-agency review of the effectiveness of the regulatory changes to the Community Reinvestment Act and new proposals were considered. The obligations to adhere to 25 percent for services and 25 percent for investments became optional and the means to securing a satisfactory CRA rating was left to the discretion of the qualifying thrifts instead See the notes in the "" column of Table I.
In April , a contingent of Democratic Congressmen [ who? After enacting a technical regulatory amendment in the interim incorporating a different formula for stratifying both metropolitan and rural zones to better align with an expanded definition of them under the CRA in the process,   the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC , the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System FRB , and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency OCC also put a new set of regulations into effect in September - mirroring much of what the OTS had already initiated earlier in the year See the notes in the "" column of Table I for specifics.
The agencies use the Consumer Price Index to adjust the asset size thresholds for small and large institutions annually. The agency referenced several factors for the proposed realignment, in particular, that a consistent CRA standard applied to both the banking and the thrift industries would facilitate objective evaluations of CRA performance; ensure accurate assessments of banks and thrifts that operated in the same markets; and permit the public to make reasonable comparisons of bank and thrift CRA performance.
OTS Director at the time, John Reich announced the final decision to go ahead and implement the proposed revisions in four main areas of its existing Community Reinvestment Act CRA regulations to reestablish uniformity between its rules and those of the other federal banking agencies.
Reaffirming the basis for the revised rules as first proposed, Reich stated, "OTS is making these revisions to promote consistency and facilitate objective evaluations of CRA performance across the banking and thrift industries. Consistent standards will allow the public to make more effective comparisons of bank and thrift CRA performance. This OTS rule revision aligned with that of the other agencies by: These four changes generally mirror the ones made by the other three federal agencies in late All the affected Federal financial supervisory agencies have one year after the date of enactment to issue rules in final form to implement the change into the Code of Federal Regulations CFR according to Title X, Subtitle C, Section of the Act.
CRA is responsible for the repackaging of sub-prime mortgages and credit agencies complicit in rating them AA concluding in the mortgage crises. In , Ben Bernanke suggested further increasing the presence of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the affordable housing market to help banks fulfill their CRA obligations by providing them with more opportunities to securitize CRA-related loans. On February 13, , the United States House Committee on Financial Services held a hearing on the Community Reinvestment Act's impact on the provision of loans, investments and services to under-served communities and its effectiveness.
There were 15 witnesses from government and the private sector. Doing so would allow them favorable consideration under their Community Reinvestment Act responsibilities. It had recently begun a two-year pilot project with an initial group of 31 banks.
Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson introduced new legislation -- Community Reinvestment Modernization Act of -- on March 12, to expand the scope of CRA to include non-bank financial institutions , such as credit unions.
The proposed revisions to CRA rules are intended to revise the term "community development" to "include loans, investments and services that support, enable or facilitate projects or activities" that meet the criteria described in the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of HERA and are conducted in designated target areas identified under the Neighborhood Stabilization Program established by HERA and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of ARRA.
Among other things, this would expand the range of persons served to include middle-income households. Perspectives on the Future of the Community Reinvestment Act ,  which assembles views from a wide range of academic researchers, regulators, community development practitioners and financial service industry representatives on how to improve the CRA going forward.
The Obama administration has increased scrutiny of the provision of credit to poor and African American neighbourhoods. Lenders have come under investigation for not operating in such areas, whether they have halted service there or have never operated in them before. Some economists have questioned if the CRA was — or at least had become — irrelevant, because it was not needed to encourage banks to make profitable loans to a variety of borrowers.
Former Federal Reserve chair Ben Bernanke has stated that an underlying assumption of the CRA — that more lending equals better outcomes for local communities — may not always be true, pointing to "recent problems in mortgage markets". However, he notes that at least in some instances, "the CRA has served as a catalyst, inducing banks to enter under-served markets that they might otherwise have ignored".
The Woodstock Institute, a Chicago-based policy and advocacy nonprofit, found in an analysis of Chicago-area survey data that low income areas still lagged behind in access to commercial loans. Most small business loans made by CRA regulated banks went to higher income areas; In a paper, Alex Schwartz of the Fannie Mae Foundation found that CRA agreements were "consistently successful in meeting their goals for mortgages, investments in low-income housing tax credits, grant giving to community-based organizations, and in opening and keeping open inner-city bank branches.
Barr, professor at the University of Michigan Law School , presented evidence to demonstrate that the CRA had overcome market failures to increase access to credit for low-income, moderate-income, and minority borrowers at relatively low cost.
He contends that the CRA is justified, has resulted in progress, and should be continued. Thompson, Director of the Division of Supervision and Consumer Protection at the FDIC, lauded the positive impact of CRA, noting that, "studies have pointed to increases in lending to low- and moderate-income customers and minorities in the decades since the CRA's passage.
In his statement before the same hearing, New York University economics professor Larry White stated that regulator efforts to "lean on" banks in vague and subjective ways to make loans is an "inappropriate instrument for achieving those goals". In a world of national banking enterprises, these policies are more likely to drive institutions out of neighborhoods. He stated that better ways to accomplish the goals would be vigorous enforcement of anti-discrimination laws, of antitrust laws to promote competition, and federal funding of worthy projects directly through an "on-budget and transparent process" like the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund.
According to a study "credit markets enabled a substantial fraction of Hispanic families to live in neighbourhoods with fewer black families, even though a substantial fraction of black families were moving to more racially integrated areas.
The net effect is that credit markets increased racial segregation". Responding to concerns that the CRA would lower bank profitability, a research paper by economists at the Federal Reserve found that "[CRA] lenders active in lower-income neighborhoods and with lower-income borrowers appear to be as profitable as other mortgage-oriented commercial banks".
Concerns at the time over the regulatory change causing an increase in the inability of financial institutions to expand through mergers or acquisition due to regulatory denial based on poor CRA compliance were unfounded.
Over the period, one regulatory agency, the Federal Reserve Board, actually approved more applications than the average percentages of those without a detailed CRA review taking place. Of the 1, merger or acquisition cases the FRB reviewed on average per year where the relevant institutions were subject to CRA, only 70 instances on average were identified with potential CRA problems regardless of public opposition or internal reporting raising the concern.
On average, 22 of these were ultimately identified as CRA compliance being the primary reason for both application withdrawal or FRB denial. Speaking in , the 30th anniversary of the CRA, Ben Bernanke , Chair of the Federal Reserve System since , stated that the high costs of gathering information, "may have created a 'first-mover' problem, in which each financial institution has an incentive to let one of its competitors be the first to enter an underserved market".
Bernanke notes that at least in some instances, "the CRA has served as a catalyst, inducing banks to enter underserved markets that they might otherwise have ignored".
In the same speech, Bernanke also noted that, "managers of financial institutions found that these loan portfolios, if properly underwritten and managed, could be profitable" and that the loans "usually did not involve disproportionately higher levels of default".
CRA regulations give community groups the right to comment on or protest banks' purported non-compliance with CRA. Groups at first only slowly took advantage of these rights. In an article for the New York Post , economist Stan Liebowitz wrote that community activists' intervention at yearly bank reviews resulted in their obtaining large amounts of money from banks, since poor reviews could lead to frustrated merger plans and even legal challenges by the Justice Department.
Morgan donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to ACORN around the same time they were to apply for permission to merge and needed to comply with CRA regulations.
According to The New York Times , some of these housing advocacy groups provided early warnings about the potential impact of lowered credit standards and the resulting unsupportable increase in real estate values they were causing in low to moderate income communities. Ballooning mortgages on rental properties threatened to require large rent increases from low and moderate income tenants that could ill afford them.
The Fed, rather than take any action on New Century, merely waited until U. Bancorp sold off some of the warrants, and then said the issue was moot. In a study exploring the relationship between the CRA and lending looked at as predatory, Kathleen C.
Engel and Patricia A. McCoy noted that banks could receive CRA credit by lending or brokering loans in lower-income areas that would be considered a risk for ordinary lending practices. CRA regulated banks may also inadvertently facilitate these lending practices by financing lenders.
They recommended that the federal agencies use the CRA to sanction behavior that either directly or indirectly increased predatory lending practices by lowering the CRA rating of any bank that facilitated in these lending practices. The FDIC has tried to address this issue by "stopping abusive practices through the examination process and supervisory actions; encouraging banks to serve all members and areas of their communities fairly; and providing information and financial education to help consumers make informed choices".
Competition also played a part in lending practices. In order to gain market share lenders lowered their standards. Economist Stan Liebowitz wrote in the New York Post that a strengthening of the CRA in the s encouraged a loosening of lending standards throughout the banking industry. Barr noted that institutions fully regulated by CRA made "perhaps one in four" sub-prime loans, and that "the worst and most widespread abuses occurred in the institutions with the least federal oversight".
He charged that "approximately 50 percent of CRA loans for single-family residences For that reason, the direct impact of CRA on the volume of subprime lending is not certain. The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission formed by the US Congress in to investigate the causes of the financial crisis, concluded "the CRA was not a significant factor in subprime lending or the crisis". According to Yellen, former Chair of the Federal Reserve, independent mortgage companies made risky "higher-priced" loans at more than twice the rate of the banks and thrifts; most CRA loans were responsibly made, and were not the "higher-priced" loans that have contributed to the current crisis.
Raines also cited information that only a small percentage of risky loans originated as a result of the CRA. In , Federal Reserve Board economists Neil Bhutta and Daniel Ringo released a summary of available studies on both sides of the debate.
They found that any impact of the CRA on risk was mitigated by the extraordinarily small market share that CRA eligible loans held in comparison with non-CRA eligible mortgage lending . CRA is designed as a simple test for how financial institutions are meeting obligations to serve the convenience and needs of the local market where they are located. This principle is one that federal law governing deposit insurance, bank charters, and bank mergers had embodied long before the enactment of CRA.
An effective urban strategy must involve private financial institutions. I am asking the independent financial regulatory agencies to develop appropriate actions, consistent with safe, sound and prudent lending practices, to encourage financial institutions to play a greater role in meeting the credit needs of their communities. First, I am requesting that financial regulatory agencies determine what further actions are necessary to halt the practice of redlining—the refusal to extend credit without a sound economic justification.
I will encourage those agencies to develop strong, consistent and effective regulations to implement the Community Reinvestment Act. Additionally, this guidance will generally not apply to: Our own experience with CRA over more than 30 years and recent analysis of available data, including data on subprime loan performance, runs counter to the charge that CRA was at the root of, or otherwise contributed in any substantive way to, the current mortgage difficulties.
There has been a tendency to conflate the current problems in the subprime market with CRA-motivated lending, or with lending to low-income families in general. I believe it is very important to make a distinction between the two. Most of the loans made by depository institutions examined under the CRA have not been higher-priced loans, 16 and studies have shown that the CRA has increased the volume of responsible lending to low- and moderate-income households. According to the HMDA data, 19 percent of the conventional first lien mortgage loans originated by depository institutions were higher-priced, compared to 23 percent by bank subsidiaries, 38 percent by other bank affiliates, and more than 40 percent by independent mortgage companies.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with a community redevelopment agency , also called by the acronym "CRA". Introduced in the House as H. Community Reinvestment Act of